quinta-feira, 12 de fevereiro de 2015

97. Why Do So Few US Women Hold Top Jobs

A new study confirms what most people already2 know: American women are still far behind3 American men in taking top leadership4 jobs in business and politics. The “Pew Research Center5” in Washington DC produced the study. Pew researchers found that6 most Americans believe women have the right qualities to be leaders. But they say women may still not be7 hired8 into leadership positions.

"On the one hand9, the public thinks that women are just as qualified as men to be in top leadership positions, in business and in government, on the other hand10 the public feels it is easier11 for men to get12 those jobs, and the public is also skeptical13 that things are going to change14 in the future, particularly on the business front.”

Kim Parker directs social trends15 at the Pew Research Center. She says the new study found that Americans think men and women have the same16 intelligence and ability to create new things. But Americans think women and men have some different abilities. For instance17, they believe women are especially good at finding compromises18. In other words, women can find ways for people to agree19, or at least20 accept solutions. The study also found Americans see women as more compassionate21 and organized leaders than men.

Americans also believe women are better leaders for social issues22, such as23 education and health care24. But Americans see men as better leaders on national defense and security. In the business world25, Americans say women still have challenges26 at the top. Sallie Krawcheck would know. She held top jobs27 at leading financial companies28 such as Smith Barney and Merrill Lynch Wealth Management29.

 “I never saw30 overt31 gender discrimination32 when I was at these companies, when I was at Bank of America, Citi, which owned33 Merrill and Smith Barney, but I certainly did see a lot of individuals making choices34 about promotions, or people to move ahead35 or new projects to give, in which recipients36 were people who looked a lot like themselves37.”

In 2008, the financial company Citigroup dismissed38 Ms.Krawcheck from her top level job. Ms. Krawcheck says that for years she had said she was not fired39 because she was a woman. Now, she says maybe that is possible. Because, she explains, she wanted to solve a problem in a different way than the rest of the other leaders, all of whom40 were men. In time, the other leaders accepted her plan, but the company later dismissed her. Ms. Krawcheck says women often have different approaches41 than men, and they have different strengths42. As a result, she says, teams that include a variety43 of people are better.

"The power of diversity, diversity of all kinds, diversity of gender, of color of thought44 , of perspective, that those are additive, and the diverse teams are actually so powerful45 that they outperform46 more intelligent teams. " Sallie Krawcheck now heads47 two companies. One company, called Ellevate, connects women with each other48 and supports49 their professional and financial success. She says her company is an important part of a bigger trend. Peoplea round the world, she says, are talking about how important female leaders are.

“We are having an absolutely amazing50 global conversation about the positive impact of the economic and financial engagement51 of women." How does the U.S. compare?  In another study, the “Pew Research Center” compared the number of women in the U.S. legislature to the number of women in similar positions52 in other developed nations53. The study found the U.S. was in the lower half54.

Drew De Silver is a senior writer for Pew. “We stand at almost exactly55 20 percent of the membership56 of the House57 and Senate are women and that would put the United States in about58 29th place out of59 49 countries studied, tied with60 the Czech republic and Saudi Arabia.” Even61 getting to62 that 20 percent of the Congress has taken a long time, Mr. DeSilver says. "It’s taken almost a century for the United States to go from one woman from the very first woman in Congress to having 20% of women in Congress, and that, most of that, most of the increase has taken place63 in the last 20 years."

When it comes to64 women in high-level presidential cabinet jobs, America has done better. Now, close to one-third of President Obama’s advisors65 in his cabinet are women. That percentage places the United States at 13 among the 49 countries studied. But of course, America has yet to elect a woman president. In contrast, women have served as president or prime minister in countries from Great Britain to Brazil, from Israel to India, and Ireland to Argentina.

Researcher Drew DeSilver said in some parts of the world, such as in Scandinavia, political parties66 are required to nominate an equal number of women and men. Therefore67, women and men can hold an equal number of seats in the parliament. Such requirements68 can help women reach more cabinet level positions as well69. The U.S. has no similar requirements for political parties. But even so70, Pew researchers found most Americans think they will see a woman president in their lifetimes. Some observers say that person might be Hillary Clinton. Former71 Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton

While it is difficult to predict the future, Professor Larry Sabato from the University of Virginia Center for Politics said in January he thinks Hillary Clinton will run for72 president with the Democratic Party. "She is a heavy73, heavy favorite to be the Democratic nominee74. She hasn’t formally announced. Some people think she might not run. That would be an enormous shock. I think she will run, she will be the nominee."     With or without a woman president, an increasing number of women in the U.S. are already serving in their state legislatures. And, researcher Kim Parker says that across the country, more women than men hold managerial75 and professional jobs. In time, those women may also rise to the top76 in politics and business. I’m Anne Ball.


1.      Why Do So Few US Women Hold Top Jobs1 = Por que tão poucas mulheres americanas ocupam cargos de elite
2.      Already = já
3.      are still far behind = estão ainda muito atrás
4.      leadership = liderança
5.      Research Center = centro de pesquisa
6.      found that = descobriu que
7.      may still not be = podem ainda não ser
8.      hired = contratadas
9.      On the one hand = por um lado
10.   on the other hand = por outro lado
11.   feels it is easier = sentem que é mais fácil
12.   get = conseguir
13.   skeptical = cético(a)
14.   things are going to change = as coisas vão mudar
15.   social trends = tendencias sociais
16.   same = mesmo(a)
17.   For instance = por exemplo
18.   Compromises = meio termo
19.   Agree = concordar
20.   at least = pelo menos
21.   compassionate = tolerante
22.   social issues = questões sociais
23.   such as = tais como
24.   health care = assistencia medica
25.   business world = mundo dos negócios
26.   challenges = desafios
27.   held top jobs = ocupou cargos de elite
28.   financial companies = empresas financeiras
29.   Wealth Management = Administração de riquezas
30.   never saw = nunca vi
31.   overt = evidente
32.   gender discrimination = discriminação de gênero (sexo)
33.   which owned = que possuia
34.   choices = escolhas
35.   move ahead = seguir em frente
36.   recipients = beneficiaries
37.   looked a lot like themselves = pareciam-se muito com eles mesmos
38.   dismissed = dispensou, demitiu
39.   fired = despedido(a), demitido(a)
40.   all of whom = todos os quais
41.   approaches = abordagens
42.   strengths = forças
43.   variety = variedade
44.   thought = pensamento
45.   are actually so powerful = são na verdade tão poderosos
46.   outperform = superam
47.   heads = comanda
48.   with each other = uns com os outros, umas com as outras
49.   supports = apoia
50.   absolutely amazing = absolutamente incrível
51.   engagement = envolvimento
52.    similar positions = cargos semelhantes
53.   developed nations = nações desenvolvidas
54.   lower half = metade inferior
55.   We stand at almost exactly = Nós nos situamos em quase exatamente
56.   Membership = associação
57.   House = House of Representatives (Câmara dos Deputados)
58.   About = aproximadamente
59.   out of = dentre
60.   tied with = empatado com
61.   Even = até mesmo
62.   getting to = chegar a
63.   most of the increase has taken place = a maioria do aumento tem ocorrido
64.   When it comes to = quando se trata de
65.   Advisors = conselheiros(as)
66.   Parties = partidos
67.   Therefore = portanto
68.   Such requirements = tais exigências
69.   as well = também
70.   even so = mesmo assim
71.   Former = ex
72.   run for = concorrer a
73.   heavy = pesado(a)
74.   nominee = candidato indicado
75.   managerial = administrative
76.   may also rise to the top = podem também subir ao topo