segunda-feira, 4 de fevereiro de 2013

06. Corruption index

From VOA Learning English, this is the Economics Report in Special English. Corruption1, like bribery2, abuse of power3 and secret dealings4 are still5 "very high" in many countries. This week (December 5, 2012) Transparency International released6 its yearly7 Corruption Perceptions Index.

The Berlin-based group rates8 176 countries and territories with a number from 100 to zero. Bigger9 numbers are better10. The index measures11 the perceived12, or apparent, level13 of corruption in a country.

The group uses information from the African Development Bank14, the World Bank and the World Economic Forum. Corruption takes many forms15. Transparency International calls16 it "the abuse of entrusted power17 for private gain18."

One common form is bribery: the use of money or gifts19 to persuade another person20 to do something wrong21 or illegal. Corruption is not easy to measure because it is secretive22. But the World Bank has estimated that about23 $1 trillion in bribes24 are paid25 every year worldwide26.

Stealing public money27 is another form of corruption. Huguette Labelle is chair28 of Transparency International. She says the problem of corruption affects millions of people and limits their ability29 to get essential services30 like water, education, health31, and licenses.

A group of small, developed nations32 scored highest33 on the new list. Denmark34, Finland and New Zealand received a rating35 of 90. Among36 large nations, the United States rated 73 while37 China rated 39. The countries with the greatest perceived level of corruption on the list are Somalia, North Korea and Afghanistan with scores of 8.

Robin Hodess directs38 research39 at Transparency International. She says transparency international needs evidence about how corruption works40, and needs to know where to target41 the reforms needed42 to promote43 accountability44 and integrity." The perceptions held by experts45, businesses and organizations are important.

The World Bank notes that46 countries showing improvements47 had greater foreign investment48 and economic growth49. For VOA Learning English, I'm Carolyn Presutti.


1. Corruption = corrupção
2. Bribery = suborn
3. abuse of power = abuso de poder
4. secret dealings = acordos secretos
5. still = ainda
6. released = lançou
7. yearly = annual
8. rates = classifica
9. Bigger = maior, maiores
10. Better = melhor, melhores
11. Measures = mede
12. Perceived = percebido
13. Level = nível
14. Development Bank = Banco de Desenvolvimento
15. takes many forms = assume muitas formas
16. calls = chama
17. entrusted power = poder confiado
18. private gain = ganho particular
19. gifts = presentes
20. persuade another person = persuadir uma outra pessoa
21. something wrong = algo errado
22. secretive = dissimulado, reservado
23. about = aproximadamente
24. bribes = subornos
25. paid = pago
26. worldwide = mundialmente
27. Stealing public money = roubar dinheiro public
28. Chair = presidente
29. Ability = habilidade
30. get essential services = obter serviços essenciais
31. health = saúde
32. developed nations = nações desenvolvidas
33. scored highest = pontuaram mais alto
34. Denmark = Dinamarca
35. received a rating = receberam uma classificação
36. Among = entre
37. While = enquanto
38. Directs = dirige
39. Research = pesquisa
40. how corruption works = como a corrupção funciona
41. target = direcionar
42. needed = necessário(a)
43. promote = promover
44. accountability = responsabilidade
45. held by experts = realizado por especialistas
46. notes that = observa que
47. showing improvements = mostrando melhorias
48. foreign investment = investimento estrangeiro
49. economic growth = crescimento econ